In 2150, with the last nation-states joining, the planet was unified under the United Earth government. It was a founding member of the Coalition of Planets in 2155, and of the United Federation of Planets in 2161. The President's office, the Federation Council, as well as Starfleet Headquarters and the main branch of Starfleet Academy were located on Earth. During the Dominion War, Earth's strategic importance was on par with worlds like Andor, Berengaria VII, and Vulcan.
- Great Wall of China
- Mount Everest
- Golden Gate Bridge
- Eiffel Tower
- North Pole
- South Pole
- River Nile
Dominant or native
- Humpback whale
Approximately 3.5 billion years ago, the first life on Earth was formed from a group of amino acids that combined to form the first proteins.
Over four hundred million years ago, in the Devonian period, the genus Eryops was the last common ancestor of both warm-blooded and cold-blooded lifeforms.
Approximately sixty-five million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period, a comet collided with the planet Earth. This mass extinction event resulted in the death of many reptilian lifeforms. One of the surviving lifeforms belonged to the genus Hadrosaur, which would evolve into the Voth. The Voth eventually left Earth, leaving no apparent trace of their civilization, and colonized a world in the Delta Quadrant. Around the same time, mammals rose to prominence on the land and in the sea, eventually leading species like Humans and Humpback whales, respectively. Humans and their immediate ancestors shared the basic humanoid appearance, which may be the result of genetic seeding that occurred long ago, by the first sentient species to inhabit the galaxy.
Earth was the birthplace of several major religions, such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism and Islam. Some of these religions, in one form or the other, have survived to the 23rd and 24th centuries.
In the 17th century, the scientist Galileo Galilei taught the masses that Earth moved around the sun. For these teachings, he was tried and convicted of heresy by an inquisition, and his books were burned.
Earth was also visited, observed, and occasionally manipulated during its history, prior to official First Contact by Vulcans. One of the earliest extraterrestrial visits was by a race known as the Sky Spirits, originally native to the Delta Quadrant. These also included an ancient humanoid species, the Preservers, descendants of Humans abducted around 4000 BC, and Vulcans themselves, although there is still dispute about this as there was no proof or evidence offered by the Vulcan High Command. The Humpback whales were being observed by an unknown entity who, upon loss of contact with the species, sent a probe to investigate the absence of whale song. In the 19th century, a race called the Skagarans abducted several thousand Humans from the American west and then used them as slave labor. The El-Aurian Guinan also stayed discreetly on Earth. In the 1930s, the Briori visited Earth and abducted several individuals, including famous pilot Amelia Earhart. In the 1950s, a team of Vulcan explorers were temporarily stranded on Earth.
From the mid-20th century onwards, manned and unmanned spacecraft have been launched from either the surface or the orbit of Earth. Several prominent craft that have been launched from Earth include Apollo 11, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Voyager 6, Nomad, Phoenix, Friendship 1, Enterprise, the USS Enterprise, and the USS Voyager.
Throughout the late 20th and early 21st centuries, NIMH experimented on rats and mice by genetically engineering them with human-like qualities.
Unlike Starfleet Medical's experiments with pandas, which were much more pleasant and accomodating, the NIMH experiments were performed in harsh conditions.
One day, the rodents became intelligent and broke out of the lab. NIMH collapsed in 2052. They hid from humanity for over a century before in 2156, the rodents stole an United Earth NX-class starship, the Currie, out of drydock. The rodents colonized the planet Ratnia, which was a part of Federation territory since the 24th century.
Starting in the 22nd century and continuing on into the 24th, there were major construction projects on the surface and in orbit of Earth that supported the burgeoning expansion of Humans into space. Some of these projects were the Warp Five Complex, the San Francisco Fleet Yards, Spacedock, and Earth Station McKinley.
In 2063, with the successful flight of the Phoenix, Earth became warp-capable.